Geografia: for 3th & 4th grades. 19th edition. Bookstore school Progredior, 1942. General Secretariat of the Ministry of Education, Portugal. The top book in the pile is about Vasco da Gama (1460-1524) who was a Portuguese explorer who discovered an ocean route from Portugal to the East. Da Gama sailed from Lisbon, on July 8, 1497. Many people thought that da Gama’s trip would be impossible because it was assumed that the Indian Ocean was not connected to any other seas.