Ciskei (Bantustan of South Africa between 1981-1994)

In 1981 it became the fourth homeland to be declared independent by the South African government and its residents lost their South African citizenship. However, there were no border controls between South Africa and Ciskei. In common with other Bantustans its independence was not recognised by the international community.
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SAHA - South African History Archive - Condemn Ciskei repression. SAAWU banned.

SAHA - South African History Archive - Condemn Ciskei repression. SAAWU banned.

Joshua Oupa Gqozo, was in power during the Bisho Massacre, when Ciskei Defence Force soldiers opened fire on marchers, killing 28 people ad injuring over 200.

Joshua Oupa Gqozo, was in power during the Bisho Massacre, when Ciskei Defence Force soldiers opened fire on marchers, killing 28 people ad injuring over 200.

Stamp: Independence, 5th Anniversary: Ntaba kaNdoda (South Africa, Homelands) (Ciskei) Mi:ZA-CS 107,Sn:ZA-CS 99

Stamp: Independence, 5th Anniversary: Ntaba kaNdoda (South Africa, Homelands) (Ciskei) Mi:ZA-CS 107,Sn:ZA-CS 99

President Diederichs in 1975 with homelands leaders Buthelezi (KwaZulu), Mphephu (Venda), Sebe (Ciskei), Matanzima (Transkei), Mangope (Bophuthatswana), Phatudi (Lebowa), Mota (QwaQwa) and a Gazankulu delegate. (BurgerArchive)

President Diederichs in 1975 with homelands leaders Buthelezi (KwaZulu), Mphephu (Venda), Sebe (Ciskei), Matanzima (Transkei), Mangope (Bophuthatswana), Phatudi (Lebowa), Mota (QwaQwa) and a Gazankulu delegate. (BurgerArchive)

Ciskei Defence Force - Wikipedia

Ciskei Defence Force - Wikipedia

Ciskei 'Independence' medal of 1981

Ciskei 'Independence' medal of 1981

Construction of the R34 million memorial to the victims of the Bhisho massacre has been delayed by more than two years.

Construction of the R34 million memorial to the victims of the Bhisho massacre has been delayed by more than two years.

© Greg Marinovich / South Photos / Africa Media Online. Bisho massacre, 1992.

© Greg Marinovich / South Photos / Africa Media Online. Bisho massacre, 1992.

Bisho massacre funerals, 1992.

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